In addition, a number of economists argue that government intervention can be effective in promoting a particular sector, but that macroeconomic industrial policies that benefit the economy as a whole are not effective. In any event, Western economists and policy makers today reject almost everywhere the idea that the United States should pursue an industrial policy that chooses winners and losers. Opponents of a possible U.S. industrial policy argue that such a policy would be subject to political pressure under the U.S. system that would guarantee failure. It is probably certain to give NAFTA at least some of the credit for doubling real trade among its signatories. Unfortunately, the simple impact assessments of the agreement stop. In addition to trade diversion and the creation of trades that have essentially static effects, participants in free trade zones and union unions also aim for dynamic benefits, such as expansion production, as companies take advantage of the growing size of the market to increase production and improve efficiency when firms adapt to increased competition. Access to a larger market is particularly important for small countries whose economies are too small to warrant large-scale production. This trend has increased considerably over the past 25 years, and this cross-border trade is now occurring in virtually every sector. Many products will include parts and materials from many countries; For example, a new suit may have West African cotton that has been transformed into fabric in Bangladesh and sewn in China with buttons imported from India. And then the complaint can be exported to the United States.
Another example is the first Airbus Jumbojet 380, which had parts and components from more than 1,500 suppliers in 27 countries. Many companies now have global supply chains that procure parts and materials around the world. Each element or material in the value chain comes from the country that is the cheapest to produce the part, whether because of the equipment of the production factors or specific incentives, such as. B tax holidays. The Heckscher-Ohlin model, which is likely to project likely trade patterns between countries with different factors of production, has really not explained this trade pattern. Krugman`s theory is based on product differentiation and economies of scale.